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Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) is one of the  neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system. The injury may be in the form of contusion, hemisection, or complete section of the spinal cord. The lesion leads to damage of the fibers and cells (neurons) at and near the site of injury which causes functional disturbances including limb weakness or paralysis (monoparesis, monoplegia, paraparesis, and paraplegia) and/or sensory and autonomic deficits. These functional impairments of spinal cord injury can be reversible or irreversible.

Many treatment modalities have been postulated and/or tested for repair of spinal cord injury using cellular and molecular approaches. Cellular approaches include stem cells (such asmesenchymal stem cells), olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs), activated macrophages, Schwann cells, and genetically modified cells. On the other hand, molecular approaches to manage spinal cord injury includemethylprednisolone, neurotrophic factors, anti-Nogo A, chondroitinase ABC, rolipram, and cAMP-level-elevating drugs.

 

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