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Stroke is acute disturbance of one or more of the functions of the brain due to blood and/or oxygen flow interruption. According to the cause of interruption, two forms of stroke can be outlined;ischemic and hemorrhagic. Ischemic stroke results from blockage of a blood vessel supplying the brain, while hemorrhagic stroke results from bleeding into or around the brain that compromises blood/oxygen supply. Stroke is usually associated with death of some of the brain cells (neurons). It may lead to reversible or irreversible loss of function.

The symptoms of a stroke include sudden numbness (sensory deficit) or weakness (motor deficit), especially on one side of the body; sudden loss of motor function on one side of the body - called hemiplegia; sudden severe headache; sudden confusion or trouble speaking (aphasia or dysphasia) or understanding speech; sudden trouble with vision in one or both eyes; sudden trouble with walking, dizziness, or loss of balance or coordination (dysequilibrium).




Mechanisms to Induce Neural Repair after Stroke:

Poststroke Axonal Sprouting

Poststroke Neurogenesis


New treatment modalities for stroke have been postulated and/or tested such as stem cells (especially mesenchymal stem cells), umbilical cord blood, neurotrophic factors, statins, nitric oxide donors, phosphodiestrase-type-5 inhibitors, intranasal drugs, estrogen, tamoxifen (anti-estrogen), enzymes (chondroitinase ABC), and others.

To learn about more strategies of regeneration of the central nervous system, please click here.



Carmichael ST (2006): Cellular and molecular mechanisms of neural repair after stroke: making waves Ann Neurol. 59:735-42

- Chen J, Chopp M (2006): Neurorestorative treatment of stroke: cell and pharmacological approaches NeuroRx. 3: 466-73


- Shingo T, Sorokan ST, Shimazaki T, Weiss S (2001): Erythropoietin regulates the in vitro and in vivo production of neuronal progenitors by mammalian forebrain neural stem cells. J Neurosci 21 :9733-43

- Studer L, Csete M, Lee SH, Kabbani N, Walikonis J, Wold B, McKay R (2000): Enhanced proliferation, survival, and dopaminergic differentiation of CNS precursors in lowered oxygen. J Neurosci. 20: 7377-83

- Silver J, Miller JH (2004): Regeneration beyond the glial scar. Nat Rev Neurosci. 5: 146-56

- Wang L, Zhang Z, Wang Y, Zhang R, Chopp M (2004): Treatment of stroke with erythropoietin enhances neurogenesis and angiogenesis and improves neurological function in rats. Stroke 35:1732-7


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