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Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) is one of the  neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system. The injury may be in the form of contusion, hemisection, or complete section of the spinal cord. The lesion leads to damage of the fibers and cells (neurons) at and near the site of injury which causes functional disturbances including limb weakness or paralysis (monoparesis, monoplegia, paraparesis, and paraplegia) and/or sensory and autonomic deficits. These functional impairments of spinal cord injury can be reversible or irreversible.

Many treatment modalities have been postulated and/or tested for repair of spinal cord injury using cellular and molecular approaches. Cellular approaches include stem cells (such asmesenchymal stem cells), olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs), activated macrophages, Schwann cells, and genetically modified cells. On the other hand, molecular approaches to manage spinal cord injury includemethylprednisolone, neurotrophic factors, anti-Nogo A, chondroitinase ABC, rolipram, and cAMP-level-elevating drugs.


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Parkinson’s disease is another neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by death of some neurons in certain areas of the brain (substantia nigra). The loss of the dopamine-producing neurons enhances the effects of acetylcholine in substantia nigra.The latter causes certain manifestations of Parkinson’s disease such as rigidity, postural instability, mask-like facies, small shuffling steps, and tremors. Several treatment options can be used to manage Parkinson's disease including mesenchymal stem cells (bone marrow stromal cells).





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Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with some neuronal degeneration in the frontal lobe of the brain. The main hallmark of the disease is cognitive deficit. The manifestations of Alzheimer’s disease include memory loss, language deterioration, impaired ability to mentally manipulate visual information, poor judgment, confusion, mood swings, and restlessness.

Stem cells and other factors have been postulated to improve recovery of cognitive deficit of Alzheimer’s disease.


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 Multiple Sclerosis (MS)is a neurodegenerative disease  of the central nervous system in which there is demyelination of the nerve fibers (axons). Demyelination means loss of part of the myelin sheath around the nerve fibers. This demyelination leads to functional disturbance including visual disturbance, weakness or paralysis, and bladder imbalance.

To learn about strategies of regeneration of the central nervous system, Please click here.




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