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Stem Cells

Stem Cells are primal cells that have the capacity to develop into other types of body cells such as brain, blood, muscle, or bone cells.This characteristic confers on stem cells the unique ability to replace damaged cells and tissues.Stem cells are believed to have a great potential in curing many diseases such as stroke, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, spinal cord injury,multiple sclerosis, Huntington's, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, syringomyelia, and cancer, etc.

There are two main types of stem cells, embryonic stem cells (ESC) 211 Mouse embryonic stem cells Wikipedia1and adult stem cells (ASC). Embryonic stem cells are derived from the embryo or fetus and are considered to be pluripotent which means they have very high potency and can change to any type of body cells such as nerve cells, blood cells, bone cells, muscle cells, and others (except the placenta). A good source for embryonic stem cells would be the leftover blastocysts (five-day-old embryos) at in-vitro-fertilization clinics which are not intended to be used by parents. The high capability of embryonic stem cells to differentiate into any type of body cells makes them an excellent tool for neural regeneration.

Adult stem cells can be isolated from the body from the first day of life until death. They are found in almost every organ in the body such as brain, spinal cord, retina, roof of the nose, skin, lung, intestine, liver, pancreas, bone marrow, muscle, and umbilical cord blood.  Adult stem cells are usually found in small numbers in the organs and tend to decrease in numbers with age. They are multipotent which means they can differentiate into a limited number of body cells, however, they are still considered a good tool of neural repair. 

Highlighted Classes of Stem Cells:

- Neural Stem Cells and Neurogenesis
- Mesenchymal Stem Cells
- Hematopoietic Stem Cells

To learn about more strategies of regeneration of the central nervous system please click here.

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