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The Central Nervous System (CNS)

It consists of the brain and the spinal cord.  Many neurodegenerative diseases cause damage of its cells and tissues.Unlike other systems of the body, the central nervous system faces many obstacles during regeneration after its damage.

Nerve cells cannot divide to replace damaged ones.There are many modalities of treatment that have been postulated and/or tested using animal and human studiesto induce neural repair after damage.These treatment strategies include molecular approaches such as the use of neurotrophic factors, glucocorticoids (methylprednisolone), antiapoptosis factors, minocycline, estrogen, rolipram (antidepressant drug), factors that enhance the intrinsic neuronal mechanisms of regeneration,  statins (cholesterol-lowering drugs), etc.Additionally, other biomolecules are used to neutralize theregeneration-inhibitory factors such as anti-Nogo A, chondroitinase ABC, anti-Rho drugs, etc.Furthermore, cellular approaches can be implemented such as the use of stem cells, olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs), Schwann cellsactivated macrophages,genetically-modified cells such as genetically-modified fibroblasts. Several routes can be used to introduce these materials and cells into the central nervous system such as theintranasal, intravenous, intraventricular, or subthecal route.Many studies have shown beneficial effects in animals but yet to move to the clinical trial phase (human studies).

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